Backup and disaster recovery
Debian ISO image builder
You can generate an ISO image to install Debian on your server, using a simple configuration file in YAML format.
This will make a quick re-installation disk for the system. It will configure for you full disk encryption and AppArmor support straight on the first boot. It is not made to install the software stack, that need to be deployed with Ansible, from a remote workstation. Although it might be possible to integrate the deployment scripts into the ISO image.
Because this feature can be useful to other projects, a dedicated project has been created on github.
Multiple encrypted backups
You can setup multiple backups for your user’s home folders, remote or local, with multiple frequencies as well. For instance, one daily backup on your NAS using a Samba share, and a weekly backup on a remote server using SSH. All the backups are encrypted and managed by the excellent borgbackup package. A summary email is sent at the end of the backup process. If you have opted for the Jabber installation, a short message is sent as well, notifying you of the job completion.
When you are deploying the system for the first time, all the information generated is saved on the deployment workstation. This gives you a way to re-install your system from scratch, without loosing any information.
If you have specified an external backup location, for instance on a remote server through SSH or on Amazon S3, all your emails, address books and calendars will be automatically restored from the backup location of your choice.
Full disk encryption
When you are using the ISO image builder to install Debian, the server disk will be fully encrypted using LUKS, with the passphrase specified in a configuration file.
This make your server fully secure against physical intrusion, even if your hardware is lost or stolen.
You do not have to plug a screen and a keyboard to unlock your server. Once it is booted, the server starts a small SSH server to connect, and let you enter the passphrase.
The SSH server started on boot share the same public key with OpenSSH. Therefore, you will not have the usual SSH warnings staying the signature has changed.
It is also possible to use a Yubikey, with or without a passphrase, to decrypt your drive. In this case, a safe script to enroll your key is provided.
All the daemons are carefully configured with an AppArmor profile, in enforce mode. This protects you against remote intrusion and 0-day vulnerabilities as well.
Fail2ban is integrated and configured, to automatically blacklist IP addresses used by spammers to attack your server. It makes this kind of attacks inefficient, and saves your bandwidth too. The duration of jail is customisable for jabber and email services.
One password per user, for all the services. All the user accounts are saved in the LDAP database, using the OpenLDAP package in Debian. A dedicated SSL certificate is created during the installation, allowing secure SSL and TLS communication with the server.
Password complexity is enforced using the pwquality module. You can specify minimum length, mandatory characters like symbols and a mix of lowercase / uppercase letters. You can also remember the last passwords for each users, avoiding them to re-use the same passwords or use a password too similar than the previous ones.
Automatic security update
Once your system is installed, any security update will be installed in background, without you having to do anything. This is set using the Debian unattended upgrades package. If you prefer to install security updates yourself, you can disable this behaviour in your system.yml file.
Only the security updates are installed, new packages versions still need to be installed manually.
The installer can deploy a complete monitoring solution, Zabbix.
- You can set up email or XMPP alerts, on various events.
- You can add other servers / machines to your monitoring server.
- You can set-up SMS alerts if, for instance, your internet connection goes down.
By default, the guest account is deleted, and a strong password is generated.
High profiles for SSL / HTTPS
Unusual behaviour detection
This advanced feature is unique amongst both commercial and self-hosted solutions. It is actually restricted to IMAP, but will be extended to other services. It is working by using a “points” system, where more points generate warnings or even deny the connection.
The following behaviour are detected, from the :
- Access from a blacklisted IP address
- Access from an IP address recently blacklisted by fail2ban
- Access from a different country than the one the box is hosted
- Access outside office hours
Although the initial values should be accurate for standard usage, any of the previous checks can be tuned for a specific usage. For instance, it is possible to:
- Whitelist / Blacklist countries, globally or per user.
- Whitelist / Blacklist IP addresses, globally or per user.
- Set office hours, globally only at this time.
Warning and errors are sent in real time, using XMPP and email to the user and an external email address. Two factors authentication on unusual behaviour will be implemented later, perhaps using google authenticator.
A DKIM certificate of 4096 bits is generated during the installation, and the associated public key is published on the DNS server. The DKIM key purpose is to mark emails coming from your domain as authentic.
The SPF and DMARC records are generated and published automatically as well. This will guarantee your emails being recognised by other email servers without any problem.
Internationalised email aliases
You can add as many email aliases as you want for your user accounts. Moreover, you will be able to add email addresses with internationalised characters, using a standardised LDAP schema. You can then have email addresses like andré@homebox.space.
When registering on a service, you can use address extensions, to directly receive emails in a specific folder. For instance, emails to firstname.lastname@example.org will be directly saved into the ‘lists’ folder of your IMAP server.
Email folders can be automatically created and subscribed as well, and you can use any character to separate your email address. for instance ‘:’, ‘~’, ‘/’ etc.
Sieve filtering support, with automatic answering, vacation, regular expression, custom scripts support, etc. The web interface to configure your filters is powerful but easy to use.
You can also access your sieve filters with the ManageSieve protocol, and the Thunderbird extension.
For instance, you can automatically:
- move/copy messages to specified folder
- redirect/copy messages to another account
- discard messages with a specific error message
- reply automatically, using vacation at specific dates
- delete messages
- sett flags (e.g. flag, mark as read, etc.)
Full text search
The server implements full text search inside your emails and your attachments. Full text search is also done inside attached archives (zip, rar, etc). The following attachments types are actually recognised:
- PDF files.
- Text, XML and HTML files (various encoding)
- Microsoft Office documents: doc, docx, xls, xlsx, pptx.
- LibreOffice/OpenOffice documents: ods, odt, odp, sxw.
- Other office documents: csv, rtf, gnumeric and abiword files
- E-Books (epub)
- Attached emails (eml)
- Archives: (zip, tar, rar, gzip)
- Old microsoft archive format: tnef (aka winmail.dat)
Archives are opened recursively, until finding documents to parse.
Notes and Limitations:
- Although encrypted archives cannot be opened, the file list is indexed.
- Powerpoint files before 2003 (.ppt) are not well supported.
Whatever you use your email server for a community or a family, you can activate the “impersonate” function. This function creates a “master” user, with an access to every other user’s mail boxes.
This feature is disabled by default, it is meant to be useful for families with children with an email address or small communities.
However, as soon as the master user is accessing someone’s email address, the user receives an alert by XMPP and an email is sent as well.
Automatic client configuration
The server supports Mozilla Thunderbird, Microsoft Outlook and other email clients automatic configuration. This makes the life of your users easier. It creates and publish autoconfig.xml, autodiscover.xml and DNS records (RFC 6186).
The emails received are automatically checked for viruses, and are discarded by default if they are infected. The emails sent by your users are checked as well, avoiding your IP address to be blacklisted if one of your account is compromised.
You can also choose to explicitly reject (bounce) emails containing viruses. In all case, the analysis is done after the email queue, making the process non blocking and efficient on small resourced hardware.
Antispam with automatic learning
The antispam integrated with the system is very easy to use. The automatic learning is done just by moving emails out or in the Junk email folder.
It is powered by rspamd, a pioneered application in term of junk email detection.
External accounts import
You can add other email accounts (Yahoo, GMail, Outlook.com, etc.). The emails will be automatically downloaded and synchronised when you connect with any client, and will appear in your account.
Because the folders hierarchy will be copied as well, it is possible to migrate from another account very easily.
There are two webmail available. RoundCube, and SOGo.
RoundCube, comes with the following plugins / features activated by default:
- Context Menu
- Sieve Rules management, with vacation, automatic answers, etc…
- Mark as Junk
- New mail desktop notification
- Password modification
- IMAP Subscriptions management
- Hotkeys support (Ctrl+Enter to send an email)
- Log the real client IP address to the mail server
When the master user functionality has been activated, the impersonate plugin is also installed, allowing you to inspect any user’s emails directly from the webmail.
More plugins can be activated very easily, just by specifying their name in the list of plugins.
Automatic copy to the sent folder
You do not need to configure your mail client to copy emails to the sent folder, this is done automatically for you. This is a lot of time saved, especially when sending big emails with attachments: You don’t need to upload an email twice.
Email access logging
Each access to the email server is logged in real time, and contains the following information:
- Source IP address
- Channel (RoundCube, SOGo or IMAP)
A monthly report is sent to each user, the first of each month, with a summary of access and some statistics.
When emails are sent, the user agent (i.e. Thunderbird, Evolution, etc…) version is removed, both for security and privacy.
Calendars and address books
It is also possible to install SOGo, which offer collaborative features, calendaring and address books. There are both accessible using respectively CalDAV and CardDAV standards.
Features of SOGo activated:
- Send emails reminder on events
- Vacation messages
- Forward your messages to another email address
- Sieve scripts editor
- Use the same web interface to access other emails
- Change your password from the web interface
If you have activated Sieve filters, you can create filters specific to your address book contacts. See the SOGo page for details.
XMPP / Jabber server
The installation script can install an XMPP / Jabber server, by using ejabberd, a “Rock Solid, Massively Scalable, Infinitely Extensible XMPP Server”.
Client to Server
- The authentication is using the LDAP server.
- Generate a 2048 bits Diffie-Helman key.
- Encryption enforcement, at least TLS 1.2.
- Jabber Fail2Ban integration
- Grade A on IM Observatory client and server reports.
- SOCKS5 Bytestreams file transfers with image thumbnails (pidgin, empathy, etc.).
- Offline file sending using https on a dedicated sub-domain (Android Conversations, etc.).
- Automatically add contact (rosters) from the shared directory.
- VCard generation from the LDAP server.
- Message archives on the server, with archive management from the client (MAM).
- User avatars are stored on the server.
- Conference / chat rooms between multiple domains.
Server to Server
The installation scripts can also activates server to server communication (aka s2s). This is optional but activated by default. It is also possible to restrict access to trusted servers, by specifying a list of domain names you want to trust.
Some clients: XMPP client software.
Bittorrent download station
You can install the transmission bittorrent daemon, accessible over https on a dedicated domain.
- The web interface and the RPC servers are protected with the LDAP credentials, unless you are at home.
- Downloaded files can be accessed directly from your web browser, still using the LDAP credentials if you are not at home.
- The daemon runs in a proper AppArmor profile.
- Easy to use form to search downloaded files in your web browser.
- Automatic firewall configuration to allow bittorrent both input and output.
- Blacklist support and automatic update.
The platform configures Privoxy with an automatic import of adblock rules from easylist, updated every day. The following rules are activated by default:
- Fanboy’s Annoyance List
- Fanboy’s Social Blocking List
The platform configures Tor as well, and allows you to ooverride any option. You can also chain privoxy and tor together.
Multiple IP scheme
Homebox can be configured with two static IP addresses, with a mix of IPv4 amd IPv6. This is useful if you are using a VPN that provides you a static IP address or if you are using 3G / 4G as a backup connection.
IPv6 is actually tested on vultr.com, a provider that supports full IPv6, on virtual servers. Digital Ocean does not allows SMTP or Submission on IPv6.
If you need a higher level of security and a protection agains DNS cache poisoning, you can activate the DNSSEC extensions. Once the playbook has been run, an email is sent to postmaster, with the ZSK (Zone Signing Key) and KSK (Key Signing Key) attached.
The server installed is bind9. When activated, the server also publishes SSHFP records for extra security.
Single packet port knocking
SPA is essentially next generation port knocking. It is using encryption and HMAC keys, to open your firewall for an SSH connection.
- Supports HMAC authenticated encryption for both Rijndael and GnuPG.
- Replay attacks are detected and thwarted by SHA-256 digest comparison of valid incoming SPA packets.
More details explained on the Comprehensive Guide.
Automatically generate certificates for each services, using LetsEncrypt. The certificates are saved on the deployment workstation as well, and reused if you are deploying your server again.
Basic sites creation
The system can create a skeleton for a static web site for you, with two https certificates as well. The certificates created, for instance for the domain example.com, will be www.example.com and example.com.
The hugo web site content need to be placed in the backup folder:
The site will be synchronised on the server, and served by Hugo systemd daemon, protected by AppArmor.
Although All the components are well integrated together, it is possible to replace them by another one, or to remove them. For instance, the RoundCube webmail and SOGo groupware are optional, like the automatic configuration modules for Mozilla Thunderbird and Microsoft Outlook.
When you will deploy the server for the first time, on when you are developing, you can set a global “debug” flag. This will activate the verbose or debug logging option of every service. Just using systemctl, you will be then able to filter by service. Once everything is working, set the flag back to false, run the deployment script again, and you have a sever ready for production.
Until we have a full testing environment, perhaps based on virtualisation, you are already able to test the most important features of your server, automatically, with one command, with an Ansible playbook. This test playbook is running self diagnostic tasks on your server, and test the following:
- Basic OS tests
- LDAP server
- Home folders
- Antispam (rspamd)
- Antivirus (clamav)
- Certificates for all services
- DKIM keys (opendkim)
- Postfix configuration
- IMAP access (dovecot)
- Autoconfig and Autodiscover
- DNS records and DNSSEC when the DNS server is installed
- Privoxy and Tor configuration
A playbook add support for development packages, necessary to debug and diagnostic the system while you are developing it, like SMTP or DNS tools. Once the development is finished, another playbook remove these packages and cleanup the system.